METABOLISM SYSTEM

6 Item(s)

per page

Grid  List 

Set Descending Direction

6 Item(s)

per page

Grid  List 

Set Descending Direction

Hyperlipidaemia is elevation of lipids (fats) in the blood stream. The principal fat in the blood is cholesterol, a naturally occurring substance utilized in creation of body hormones like oestrogen and testosterone. Cholesterol is also an essential component of the membrane that surrounds individual cells of the body. As fat is insoluble; cholesterol must be bound to proteins when it is transported in the blood. This complex of fats and protein is called a lipoprotein. It is an important risk factor in developing atherosclerosis and heart diseases. Forms of lipids in the blood include cholesterol, cholesterol esters (compounds) phospholipids and triglycerides. They are transported in the blood as part of large molecules called lipoproteins (VLDL), Low density lipoproteins (LDL) and High Density lipoproteins (HDL).

High cholesterol and other Lipid Disorders can be inherited (genetics) or associated with fatty diets, Diabetes, Hypothyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome and kidney failure. Certain medications, including birth control pills, estrogen, corticosteroids, certain diuretics and beta blockers and life style factors, including habitual, excessive alcohol use and lack of exercise, lead to obesity. People who smoke and also have high cholesterol are at even greater risk for heart disease.

Lipid disorders are more common in men than women.

Obesity :- Obesity is a chronic condition defined by an excess amount of body fat (A certain amount of body fat is necessary for storing energy, heat insulation, shock, absorption, and other functions).

Obesity is best defined by using the body mass index. The body mass index is calculated using a person's height and weight. The body mass index (BMI) equals a person's weight in kilograms (kg) divided by their height in meters (m) squared. Since BMI describes body weight relative to height, it is strongly correlated with total body fat content in adults. An adult who has a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and an adult who has a BMI over 30 is considered obese. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal weight. Over two-thirds of adults are overweight or obese. The prevalence of obesity in children has increased markedly. Obesity has also been increasing rapidly throughout the world.

What are the health risks associated with obesity?

Obesity is not just a cosmetic consideration; it is harmful to one's health. Most of these deaths are in patients with a BMI over 30. For patients with a BMI over 40, life expectancy is reduced significantly. Obesity also increases the risk of developing a number of chronic diseases, including the following:

  • Insulin resistance. Insulin is necessary for the transport of blood glucose (sugar) into the cells of muscle and fat (which is then used for energy). By transporting glucose into cells, insulin keeps the blood glucose levels in the normal range. Insulin resistance (IR) is the condition whereby the effectiveness of insulin in transporting glucose (sugar) into cells is diminished. Fat cells are more insulin resistant than muscle cells; therefore, one important cause of insulin resistance is obesity. The pancreas initially responds to insulin resistance by producing more insulin. As long as the pancreas can produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance, blood glucose levels remain normal. This insulin resistance state (characterized by normal blood glucose levels and high insulin levels) can last for years. Once the pancreas can no longer keep up with producing high levels of insulin, blood glucose levels begin to rise, resulting in type 2 diabetes, thus insulin resistance is a pre-diabetes condition.

  • Type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases with the degree and duration of obesity. Type 2 diabetes is associated with central obesity, a person with central obesity has excess fat around his/her waist, so that the body is shaped like an apple.

  • High blood pressure (hypertension). Hypertension is common among obese adults. A Norwegian study showed that weight gain tended to increase blood pressure in women more significantly than in men.

  • High cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), Stroke. 

  • Heart attack. A prospective study found that the risk of developing coronary artery disease increased three to four times in women who had a BMI greater than 29. Congestive heart failure.

  • Cancer  Obesity has been linked to cancer of the colon in men and women, cancer of the rectum and prostate in men, and cancer of the gallbladder and uterus in women. Obesity may also be associated with breast cancer, particularly in postmenopausal women. Fat tissue is important in the production of estrogen, and prolonged exposure to high levels of estrogen increases the risk of breast cancer.

  • Gallstones, Gout and gouty arthritis.

  • Osteoarthritis (degenerative arthritis) of the knees, hips, and the lower back, Sleep apnea.